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The Java language is an object-oriented computer programming language created by Sun Microsystems at SunWorld. Sun was then purchased in 2009 by Oracle, which now owns and maintains Java. The main objective of Java is that the software written in this language is portable on several operating systems such as UNIX, Windows, Mac OS or GNU / Linux, with little or no modifications. For this, various platforms and associated frameworks aim to guide, if not guarantee, this portability of applications developed in Java.

 

Course Title Author Download Course
Java TutorialPoint TutorialPoint Java is a high-level programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. Java runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX. This tutorial gives a complete understanding of Java. This reference will take you through simple and practical approaches while learning Java Programming language.
Introduction to Programming Using Java  David – William Smith Introduction to Programming Using Java is a free introductory computer programming textbook that uses Java as the language of instruction. It is suitable for use in an introductory programming course and for people who are trying to learn programming on their own. There are no prerequisites beyond a general familiarity with the i deas of computers and programs. There is enough material for a full year of college-level pro gramming. Chapters 1 through 7 can be used as a textbook in a one-semester college-level course or in a year-long high school course. The remaining chapters can be covered in a second course
 Beginning Java Objects  JACQUIE BARKER There have been similar discontinuities in the way in which the  Java Development Kit ( JDK ) has been referred to. The JDK is the software “bundle” used by developers to build Java applications and consisting of •  The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)  •  The Java compiler ( javac ) •  The Java Archive ( jar ) utility •  The Java documentation ( javadoc ) utility etc. These discontinuities in naming are, in part, due to the fact that as of version 1.2 of the Java language, three Java “platforms” emerged: • Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME) : A pared-down version of Java ideally suited to programming consumer electronic devices such as mobile phones, pagers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), etc. • Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (J2SE) : The fundamental (and original) Java language and run time, used in building desktop applications such as we’ll be building for the SRS in Part 3 of this book. J2SE also serves as the foundation for the  Enterprise Edition of Java (J2EE). • Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) : A set of component technologies used with J2SE to build multitier enterprise-level application

 

 

 

 

Introduction to Automata Theory
Automata theory :
the study of abstract computing devices, or ”machines” Before computers (1930),
A. Turing
studied an abstract machine (Turing machine) that had all the capabilities of today’ s computers (concerning what they could compute).
His goal was to describe precisely the boundary between whata computing machine could do and what it could not do

Source  : http://www.univ-orleans.fr/lifo/Members/Mirian.Halfeld/Cours/TLComp/TLComp-introTL.pdf

Contents

1 Mathematical Preliminaries 3
2 Formal Languages 4
2.1 Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.4 Finite Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4.1 Regular Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3 Grammars 18
3.1 Context-Free Grammars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2 Derivation Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.2.1 Ambiguity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.3 Regular Grammars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.4 Digraph Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4 Finite Automata 38
4.1 Deterministic Finite Automata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.2 Nondeterministic Finite Automata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.3 Equivalence of NFA and DFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.3.1 Heuristics to Convert NFA to DFA . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.4 Minimization of DFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.4.1 Myhill-Nerode Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.4.2 Algorithmic Procedure for Minimization . . . . . . . . 65
4.5 Regular Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.5.1 Equivalence of Finite Automata and Regular Languages 72
4.5.2 Equivalence of Finite Automata and Regular Grammars 84
4.6 Variants of Finite Automata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.6.1 Two-way Finite Automaton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.6.2 Mealy Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5 Properties of Regular Languages 94
5.1 Closure Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.1.1 Set Theoretic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.1.2 Other Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.2 Pumping Lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Formal Languages and Automata Theory
D. Goswami and K. V. Krishna

Source  : https://www.iitg.ernet.in/dgoswami/Flat-Notes.pdf

 

Outline
1-Introduction
Linguistics and formal languages
Computer science and formal languages
Generative vs. recognition
2-Formal languages
3-Grammars
Chomsky hierarchy
4-Finite-state automata
Deterministic  nite-state automata
Extensions of DFA
FA and linear grammars
5-Regular expressions
6-Context-free languages and pushdown automata
7-References

Source : http://www.sti.uniurb.it/aldini/publications/lfga.pdf

 In mathematics, computer science and linguistics, language theory aims to describe formal languages. A formal language is a set of words. The alphabet of a formal language is the set of symbols, letters or lexemes used to construct the words of language; Often, we suppose that this alphabet is finite. Words are sequences of elements of this alphabet; Words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called well-formed words or well-formed formulas. A formal language is often defined by a formal grammar, such as algebraic grammars and analyzed by automata.

Course Titles —– Authors
Formal Languages, Grammars, and Automa  Alessandro Aldini
Formal Languages and Automata Theory GD. Goswami and K. V. Krishna
 Automata Theory and Languages   Mirian